Email: george.lady@temple.edu

EDUCATION

**Diploma**:

**A.B.(Economics)**: The

**A.M.(Economics)**: The

**Ph.D.(Political Economy)**:

HONORS

**University Teaching Fellow**: The

**Gilman Fellow**: The

**Johns **: The

**NSF Sponsored Research**:

**Superior Service Award**: Federal Energy Administration, 1975.

**Special Achievement Award**: Federal Energy Administration, 1976.

**Superior Achievement Award**:

**Merit Points Awarded in Various Years:
**Temple University, 1981-present.

**Award for Outstanding Research given by
the Economics Department, Temple University for AY 2011-2012, based on the
paper: **“Structural Models, Information and Inherited Restrictions,” with
Andrew Buck, *Economic Modelling*, 28,
Issue 5, November 2011, pp. 2820-2831..

ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT

**Professor**:

Recent research projects include the development of software based analysis techniques designed to assess the elements of an inverse Jacobian matrix based upon a nonparametric specification of the Jacobian matrix. The computer programs apply mathematical results derived separately on the stability and invertibility of matrices as related to characteristics of their signed directed graphs. Applications of the results have been found in computer model quality control and the evaluation of econometric models.

**Recent Service: **Department
Promotion and Tenure Committee and Graduate Affairs Committee, panel member for
proceedings sponsored by Temple’s Office of Student Conduct and Community
Standards.

**Teaching: **Developed and installed
in the appropriate Temple Computer Labs the software application ECONSIM, the
basis for Economics 3544. The software is maintained and expanded annually.

**Lecturer**:

**Assistant Professor**:

**Associate Professorial Lecturer**: The

**Lecturer**: The

** Research Scientist**: The Logistics Research Project of The

NON-ACADEMIC EMPLOYMENT

**OPTIMA Consulting Services, 1983 - present.** Provides advice and
software development on the use of mathematical and statistical techniques in
the development of information products to support management decision making
and analysis. A particular emphasis is the integration of information
requirements and specific management needs through the use of interactive
software tailored to user specifications. Applications include mathematical
processing and graphical displays of components from the solution sets of large
forecasting models, the integration and analysis of interregional data
describing alternative technologies for commercial building heating and
cooling, models of options pricing, and the risk/return performance of
financial futures contracts.

**Decision Analysis Corporation, 1985 - 1998.** Provides advice and
technical services in the development and use of mathematical and statistical
models of energy production, distribution, and consumption. Specific projects
include: the estimation of a reduced form version of the Oil Market Module, a
model of petroleum product refining and distribution, based upon "pseudo
data" generated by the Oil Trade Model, a large programming based model of
international petroleum product production and distribution; an assessment of
the scope of and problems with measures of the environmental and other external
impacts of energy production and consumption; participated in the design of
(the National Energy Modeling System's) components for residential and
commercial energy consumption; and conducted an assessment of Federal
Government intervention in energy markets and its consequences.

** ANSTEC, 1991 - 1994.** Developed the analytical and software
basis for finding the signs of comparative statics multipliers based upon the
signs of the elements of a mathematical model's Jacobean matrix. Developed an
application of the software for the Oil Market Simulation (OMS), a model of
international oil pricing and the Oil and Gas Supply Model.

**Senior Manager**:

**Director, Office of Analysis Oversight and Access**:

**Director, Office of Coal, Nuclear and Electric Power Analysis**: GS -
16/3, 1975 - 1979. Responsible for all data analysis and modeling in the
assigned energy types. Designed and directed the use of systems that forecast
energy supply availability up to twenty years into the future under a variety
of geological, economic, and regulatory assumptions. Applications included the
study of the economic consequences of: a curtailment of nuclear based supply
development, the imposition of more stringent environmental standards on energy
use, and the general issue of energy price regulation.

**Chief, Short-Term Energy Forecasting Division**: GS - 15/5, 1974 -
1975. Designed automated systems and directed the preparation of forecasts of
short-term energy supply and demand. A particular emphasis was that of
determining the consequences of supply disruptions due to such as import
embargoes, coal miners' strikes, and surges in energy demand such as that
related to severely cold weather.

**Program Manager**: The Resource Management Corporation, 1968 - 1974.
Designed and directed contract research projects to evaluate a variety of
government based programs and systems. Techniques utilized included
multivariate parametric and non-parametric statistics, optimization theory,
directed graphs, Markov Processes, queuing theory, and general cost/benefit
analysis. Specific projects included: Evaluation of manpower training programs;
development of rigorous models for long range planning; analysis of
transportation systems' cost/benefits; mathematical simulation of the Navy
Supply System; evaluation of alternative land combat system designs; and
analysis of determinants of reserve component accession rates.

RECENT PROJECTS

Analysis of the economic consequences of government intervention in the
markets for energy products in support of: *Federal Energy Subsidies: Direct
and Indirect Interventions In Energy Markets*, DOE/EIA/SR/EMEU/92-02,
November 1992.

Development of SGNSOLVE.EXE, a microcomputer based algorithm for testing the
Boolean and Qualitative characteristics of a matrix' inverse. An application
was made for the Department Of Energy's Oil And Gas Supply Model: *Structural
And Qualitative Analysis Of The Onshore Lower 48 Conventional Oil And Gas
Supply Model*, in partial satisfaction of DOE Contract Number
DE-AC01-91EI21938, Task 93023, October 1993.

Development of computer based methods for assessing the invertibility and
stability of systems of simultaneous equations, *Tutorial For Structural And
Qualitative Analysis*, prepared for the Office Of Statistical Standards,
Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, January 1994.

Development and computer implementation of an algorithm for applying kernel
regression and LP-based smoothing techniques to a large pseudo-data-set
generated by a model of national refinery operations: *Reduced Form Model
Development For The Petroleum Market Module (PMM) Including Speed And Accuracy
Tests*, prepared in partial satisfaction of EIA Contract Number
DE-AC01-92EI21946 (Task 93-020), Decision Analysis Corporation Of Virginia, May
1994.

Development of mathematical algorithms and their computer implementation to
enable the comparison of energy system forecasts prepared by DOE using the
Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System (STIFS) and the National Energy
Modeling System (NEMS): *Determination Of The Basis For Differences Between
NEMS And STIFS Forecasts*, prepared in partial satisfaction of EIA Contract
Number DE-AC01-92EI21946, Task 95107, Decision Analysis Corporation Of Virginia,
December 1995.

Development of mathematical algorithms and their computer implementation to
enable the parameterization of energy consuming equipment choices: *The Scope
Of Projecting The Efficiency Of Residential And Commercial Sector Energy
Consumption*, Decision Analysis Corporation Of

COMPARE.EXE software prepared for the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department Of Energy to enable comparisons and diagnostic tests of the solution files generated by the Department's computer based forecasting models, OPTIMA Consulting Services, August 1996.

Development of computer simulations of electricity generation and dispatch at a state level of geographic detail to enable an analysis of the consequences of the deregulation of markets for electricity , Decision Analysis Corporation Of Virginia.

Development of a computer simulation, BINSIM, of commercial building heating
and cooling based upon alternative technologies and standards for
building-shell thermal characteristics. Data were assembled for over one
hundred heating/cooling technologies and building thermal shell characteristics
for thirty-two climate typologies (BINS). Economic and behavioral assumptions
were utilized in forecasting technology selection for new commercial buildings
in the time frame 1996-2000. Based on these projections the efficiency of
alternative regulatory formulae was assessed and presented in: *Analysis of
ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989R Building Envelope Requirements* (written with
Jason Glazer), Gas Research Institute, October 1997.

Development of graf98, a PC-based graphic interface utilized by the Energy
Information Administration (EIA), U.S. Department of Energy in conjunction with
the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). NEMS generates large, 2.4MB, solution
sets describing projections of domestic and international production and
consumption of energy products through the year 2020. Solutions are prepared
under alternative assumptions concerning economic performance, the
characteristics of international markets for oil, technological change, and
government regulatory policies. Currently, NEMS is being used to assess the
economic and other impacts of reducing carbon emissions from the combustion of
fossil-based energy as agreed in

Software and Users Guide for ECONSIM, computer-based simulations of economic
activity developed in support of Economics 3544. This program is installed in

Development of graf2000, a follow-on of graf98, including components that enable comparisons of solution series volatility, 2000-2006.

Development of NEMSSIM, various versions: Linear and kernel regression based approximations of the National Energy Modeling System. NEMSSIM supports rapid response estimates of large model results, audits of model variable/parameter sensitivities and the partition of forecasting errors between inherent uncertainty and errors in forecasting exogenous variables, 2001-2006.

Developed Sim_Inverse and Qual_Check, compiled as a Windows applications using Microsoft’s Visual Studio 6. These applications conduct a Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution of reduced form sign patterns based upon assumed structural sign patterns to determine the information content of a structural hypothesis and the feasibility of estimated reduced forms to correspond to proposed structural arrays, 2007-2011. The software supported the findings in the two publications noted below:

“Structural Models,
Information and Inherited Restrictions,” with Andrew Buck, *Economic Modelling*, 28, 2011, pp. 2820-2831..

“Structural Sign Patterns
and Reduced Form Restrictions, “ with Andrew Buck, *Economic Modelling*, 29, 2012, pp. 462-470.

Developed Big_Sim, compiled as a Windows application using Microsoft’s
Visual Studio 6. This application complements the two applications cited above.
These two applications are limited to an analysis of reduced form sign patterns
limited to less than 30 bits of information, i.e., thirty signs. Big_Sim can
assess very much larger arrays. It can also isolate particular entries in the
reduced form for analysis. This feature enables a further analysis of the
underlying system of inequalities to be parsed to identify the inconsistences
associated with a falsified reduced form. The software was developed and tested
in the summer of 2013. This software is intended for use in the development of
the paper: *Qualitative Comparative
Statics*, now being written with coauthor Andrew Buck.

RECENT CONFERENCES

Present at the national meeting of the
International Atlantic Economic Converence,

“*Graf2000,* Graphic Interface and
Diagnostic Tool for the National Energy Modeling System,” Technical Report,
Energy Information Administration,

October 2000: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “Computer-Based Diagnostics for Long Term Energy System Forecasts.”

“Kernel Regression-Based Approximations of the
National Energy Modeling System,” Technical Report, Office of Integrated
Analysis and Forecasting, Energy Information Administration,

“Linear Regression Approximations of Major Energy
Forecast Series,” Technical Report, Statistical Methods Group, Energy
Information Administration,

October 2002: Attended the Annual American
Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis,

“Comparisons of Variable/Parameter Sensitivities
for Alternative Solutions of the National Energy Modeling System,” Technical
Report, Energy Information Administration,

“Alternative Elasticity Measures Across NEMS
Solutions,” Technical Report, Statistical Methods Group, Energy Information
Administration,

October 2004: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “Methods for Assessing NEMS Solution Data for Interpretive and Diagnostic Purposes.”

January 2005: “Solution Diagnostics for NEMS Scenario Development,” presented to the Energy Information Administration. DOE.

June 2005: “Graphic and numerical processing of Alternative NEMS’ Version Results,” presented to the Energy Infomration Administration, DOE.

October 2005: annual meetings of International Atlantic Economic Association. Presented the paper (with Andrew Buck, “Approximation of Large, Computer-Based Economic Models.”

October 2006: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “National Energy Modeling System Performance Evaluation.”

April 2007: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “Update: National Energy Modeling System Performance Evaluation.”

October 2007: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “Using Regression Analysis for Forecast Evaluation.”

October 2008: Attended the Annual American Statistical Association Conference on Energy Data and Analysis, Washington, D.C. Presented the paper: “Sensitivity Analysis of EIA Forecasting Systems.”

July 2009: “Preliminary Discovery of the Significance of Corporate Knowledge Management Technology “ with David E. Lady. Presentation at the International Conference on Knowledge Generation, Communication, and Management, in Orlando, Florida.

February 2010: Qualitative Matrices and Information,” with Andrew Buck. Presentation at the annual meeting of the Eastern Economic Association, Philadelphia, February 27, 2010.

Available as DETU Working Paper 10-03: http://www.temple.edu/cla/economics/research/documents/detu_10_03.pdf

PUBLICATIONS

"A Note on Graph Theoretic Approaches to the Theory of Social
Choice," *Public Choice*, Vol. V, Spring 1969, pp. 93 - 98.

"Homothetic Separability and Consumer Budgeting" (with Blackorby,
et al), *Econometrica*, Vol. 38, No. 3, May 1970, pp. 468 - 472.

"Short-Term Energy Supply and Demand," *The Monthly Energy
Review*, October 1975, pp. 2 - 10.

"Short-Term Forecasts of Energy Supply and Demand" (with Alt and
Bopp),* Econometric Dimensions of Energy Supply and Demand*, Edited by
Askin and Kraft,

"Short-Term Petroleum Supply and Demand Forecasting: An Applied
Approach" (with Alt and Bopp), *The Journal of Energy and Development*,
Vol. II, No. 1, Autumn 1976, pp. 86 - 102.

"Conservation in *Energy*,
Vol. 3, Fall 1978, pp. 533 - 538.

"Econometric Analysis of the 1974/75 Decline in Petroleum Consumption
in the *Energy Economics*,
Vol. 1, January 1979, pp. 27 - 32.

"Model Assessment and Validation: Issues, Structure and Energy
Information Administration Program Goals," *Validation and Assessment
Issues of Energy Models*, Edited by Saul Gass, NBS Special Publication 569,
National Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1980, pp. 5 - 21.

"Quality Control for Analysis," *Validation and Assessment of
Energy Models*, Edited by Saul Gass, NBS Special Publication 616, National
Bureau of Standards, Washington, D.C., 1981, pp. 65 - 77.

"On Organizing Analysis," *Computer Assisted Analysis and Model
Simplification*, Edited by Greenberg and Maybee, Academic Press,

"On Measuring the Effects of Higher Energy Prices" (with Bopp), *Energy
Economics*, Vol. 4, No. 4, October 1982, pp. 218 - 224.

"The Structure of Qualitatively Determinate Relationships," *Econometrica*,
Vol. 51, No. 1, January 1983, pp. 197 - 218.

"Qualitatively Invertible Matrices" (with J. Maybee), *Mathematical
Social Sciences*, Vol. 6, 1983, pp. 397 - 407.

"Cash/Futures Pricing and Hedge Ratios" (with J. Lady), *Advances
in Futures and Options Research*, Volume I, JAI Press, 1986, pp. 137 - 152.

Independent Expert Review of the Refinery Evaluation Modeling System.
Performed for the Office of Statistical Standards, Energy Information
Administration,

"A Comparison Of Petroleum Futures Versus Spot Prices As Predictors Of
Prices In The Future" (with A. Bopp), *Energy Economics*, Fall 1991.

"Measuring the Effects of Changing Energy Prices" (with A. Bopp),
in *Oil in the Eighties: A Decade of Decline*, edited by Siamack Shojai
and Bernard Katz, June 1992.

"Forecasting Marginal Costs of a Multiple-Output Production
Technology" (with C. Moody), *Journal of Forecasting*, Vol. 12, June
1993, pp. 421-436.

"Robust Economic Models," *Journal of Economic Dynamics and
Control*, 19, 1995, pp. 481-501.

"Qualitative Comparative Statics and Audits of Model Performance"
(with D. Hale), *Linear Algebra and Its Applications*, 217, 1995, pp.
141-154.

"Nearly Sign Nonsingular Matrices" (with J. Maybee and T. Lundy), *Linear
Algebra and Its Applications*, 220, 1995, pp. 229-248.

"Detecting Stable Matrices," *Annals of Mathematics and
Artificial Intelligence*, 17, 1996,
pp. 29-36.

**"**Analysis of

*Nonparametric Comparative Statics and Stability* (with Hale, Maybee,
and Quirk),

"Topics in Nonparametric Comparative Statics and Stability," *International
Advances In Economic Research*, 5, February 2000, pp. 67-83.

"Falsifying Economic Models" (with Andrew Buck), *Economic Modelling, *22,* *September
2005, pp. 777-810.

"The Scope of the LeChatelier Principle" (with James Quirk), *Physica
A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications ,* 381,

“Evaluating Long Term Forecasts,” *Energy
Economics,* Vol. 32, Issue 2, March 2010, pp.450-457*.*

“The Global LeChatelier Principle and Multimarket Equilibria,” (with James
Quirk), *The Review of Economic Design,*
14, 1, March 2010, pp. 193-201.

“Structural Models, Information and Inherited Restrictions,” with Andrew
Buck, *Economic Modelling*, 28, Issue 5, November 2011, pp. 2820-2831..

“Structural Sign Patterns and Reduced Form Restrictions,“ with Andrew Buck, *Economic Modelling*, 29, Issue 2, March 2012,
pp. 462-470.

**Research in Progress**

“Qualitative Comparative Statics,” with Andrew Buck. Extension and
resolution of the results published with Andrew Buck in 2011 and 2012 as cited
above. Planned completion in AY 2013-2014. Target journal, *Econometrica.*

“Comparative Statics and Forecast Evaluation.” Application of the method published
in Lady (2010) cited above. Planned completion AY 2014-1015. Target journal, *Energy Economics.*

**Temple Economics Department Working
Papers**

“An Expanded Scope for Qualitative Economics,” with Andrew Buck. DETU Working Paper 10_07: http://www.temple.edu/cla/economics/research/documents/detu_10_07.pdf

“Structural Sign Patterns and Reduced Form Restrictions,“ with Andrew Buck. DETU Working Paper 11_02 (accepted for publication).

“Structural Models, Information and Inherited Restrictions,” with Andrew Buck. DETU Working Paper 11_03 (accepted for publication).